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Jaw fracture Surgeries

Maxillofacial fractures are traumatic breakage/crack of bones involving the upper, middle and lower portion of the face ie, Jaw bones and bones of the nose, cheek, orbit (eye socket) etc as the result of the heavy force of impact or stress and it may also involve the skin and soft tissues injuries.
One of the most vulnerable and important parts of the human body is the face. Most maxillofacial fractures are results of motor vehicle accidents, domestic accidents, as well as sports injuries and fights. At times, the weakened bones of the facial region may also crack and break due to a medical condition.
 The common symptoms of maxillofacial fractures anywhere on the face are:

  • Pain
  • Bruising
  • Swelling

The symptoms seen In case of a fracture involving the forehead or frontal bone are:

  • Depressed (pushed in) appearance of the injured forehead
  • Injuries to eyes
  • Pain around sinuses

The symptoms seen In case of fracture involving eye socket (orbit) are:

  • Blackened eye
  • Redness of the eye/bleeding around the eye region
  • Reduced / blurry vision
  • Numb feeling in cheek, eyelids or forehead
  • Swollen forehead or cheek

The symptoms seen in case of a broken nose or nasal bone fracture are:

  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Nosebleed
  • Difficulty in breathing due to nasal blockage
  • Bruising around the nose

The symptoms seen In case of fracture involving the cheek or upper jaw bones are:

  • Flatness of cheekbones
  • Change in sensation below the eye on the injured side of the face
  • Vision problems
  • Pain around fractured sites
  • Restricted Mouth Opening

The symptoms seen In case of a broken upper and lower jaw bone are:

  • Pain bruising/tenderness/swelling on the jaw or under the ear
  • Inability to align both sets of teeth (jaws) normally
  • Bruising underneath the tongue
  • Missing/loosened teeth
  • Numbness of chin, lower lip and tongue
  • Deformity of the injured region
  • Facial asymmetry

Short and long-term psychological problems can result from maxillofacial trauma and disfigurement. Maxillofacial fractures need to be treated quickly and efficiently in order to avoid life-threatening complications from arising and to restore the normal appearance of the face.
Surgical fixation of the broken bones is the most ideal treatment for maxillofacial fractures. The main aim of the surgery is to restore normal shape and appearance to the face and ensure that the jaw lines are aligned normally, the surgeon will keep the corrected bones stabilized using surgical titanium plates, mesh and screws. Currently, resorbable mini-plates and screws are also used for the fixation of the fractured bony segments.

Authored By Dr. Vinamra Dhariwal - Dentist, Chennai

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