Periodontal disease has became one of the common diseases. The infection that affects the periodontal tissues (alveolar bone, gingiva, periodontal ligament and cementum) teeth is basically known as periodontal disease. Simply saying, it can be called as a serious infection that affects the bone and supporting soft tissues of the teeth. It may even cause tooth decay and other severe issues. Usually, poor oral hygiene causes periodontal infections. Lack of proper cleaning leads to the growth of plaque and tartar. Mass of plaque and tartar cause damages to the periodontal tissues and finally reaches in periodontal diseases.
Let us go deep about periodontal diseases and it is prognosis. Plaque (biofilm) is made up of millions of bacteria. Growth of plaque should be prevented from the early stage. When the plaque is not removed properly, it causes infection. Over time, the infection spreads and becomes severe dental issues like periodontal diseases. Periodontal diseases are classified into different types according to it is severity:
- Gingivitis: The mildest form of periodontal diseases is called gingivitis. As a result of the infection, gums will become swollen, red and easily bleed. In adequate oral hygiene is the main cause of gingivitis. It can be cured with good oral care and professional treatment. Other factors that can cause gingivitis are-smoking, diabetes, inadequate nutrition, puberty, HIV infection, certain medication, substance abuse, puberty, stress, and other systemic diseases and conditions.
- Periodontitis: Gingivitis, when untreated will develop further and become periodontitis. Over time, the plaque spreads and develops below the gum line. As a result, the symptoms get worse. Without proper treatment, teeth can be lost or should have to be removed eventually. There are different forms of periodontitis such as:
- Aggressive periodontitis: Patients with aggressive periodontitis will be healthy otherwise. The most common features of aggressive periodontitis include bone destruction and rapid attachment loss.
- Chronic periodontitis: As a result, the supporting tissues of the teeth will inflame and cause bone loss. It is the most common form of periodontitis. The main characteristic of this type of periodontitis are pocket formation and gingival recession. It can occur at any stage and most prevalent among adults.
Periodontitis can also occur as a manifestation of systemic diseases. Diseases associated with this form of periodontitis are-diabetes, respiratory diseases and heart diseases.
- Necrotizing periodontal disease: It is a kind of infection with the characteristic of gingival tissue necrosis. Necrosis may also affect the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. These abrasions are visible among individuals with systemic conditions such as malnutrition, immunosuppression and malnutrition.